*Last updated: September 4, 2018
Dropping out of school refers to abandoning one’s schooling before getting an initial diploma. This can be a high school diploma (DES), a vocational diploma (DEP), or a qualification (training certificate in a semiskilled trade or prework training certificate).
Students do not drop out of school overnight. Dropping out is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Throughout their schooling, youth are constantly influenced by various factors called “determinants of school perseverance“. When these factors have a negative influence, they are called risk factors. Risk factors increase the likelihood that a student will struggle at school, which can lead to dropping out. Determinants of school perseverance include motivation and engagement, self-esteem, parental supervision, school climate, and community resources.
To quantify the dropout rate in Québec, the ministère de l’Éducation et de l’Enseignement supérieur (MEES) calculates the rate of school leavers, among students enrolled in youth-sector general education in a given year, who leave without a diploma or qualification. The rate is calculated annually.
A dropout, also called an “early school leaver,” is a student who was enrolled in Secondary 1 to 5 of Québec’s youth-sector general education program as of September 30 of a given year but who cannot be found in any general education youth-sector teaching establishment, adult-sector program, or vocational program in Québec during a follow-up almost two years later.
Rate of early school leavers = students leaving school without a diploma or qualification / All high school leavers enrolled in youth-sector general education
- Unless otherwise indicated, the indicator used throughout this site is the public-sector dropout rate, since the government’s graduation rate targets are based on public-sector parameters.
- Due to methodological differences, the dropout rate cannot be calculated simply by subtracting the graduation rate from 100%.
For further details and information on the dropout rate, please visit the MEES website. (French only)
For several years, the dropout rate has been declining in Montreal. At 24.6% in 2009, it dropped to 18% in 2015. Despite this notable improvement, no fewer than 2,080 students left school without obtaining a diploma in 2015. Taking a closer look at Montreal’s specific context helps to better understand these figures.
(Source: ministère de l’Éducation et de l’Enseignement supérieur, Direction des statistiques et de l’information décisionnelle, information portal, Charlemagne system, data from November 2010 and November 2016)
Dropping out has considerable repercussions, on both the dropout and on society as a whole. A report entitled Savoir pour Pouvoir (2009), by the Groupe d’action sur la persévérance et la réussite scolaires au Québec, noted that in current values, the dropping out of 28,000 youth per cohort represents a loss of $1.9 billion in revenue for the government. This shortfall is made up of uncollected sales and income taxes but also of additional social costs generally associated with dropouts over the course of their lives. In addition, compared to high school graduates, dropouts are less active as citizens. For example, they tend to vote less often, do less volunteer work, and donate blood less frequently.
Dropping out also harms people on an individual level. People without high school diplomas tend to have lower annual incomes and higher unemployment rates, are more likely to suffer from depression, and have lower life expectancies.
Average annual income
- Dropouts: $25,000
- High school graduates: $40,000
Average unemployment rate
- Dropouts: 15%
- High school graduates: 7%
Risk of adult depression
- Dropouts: 15%
- High school graduates: 9%
Average life expectancy
- Dropouts: 75 years
- High school graduates: 82 years
Dropouts present a wide range of characteristics. Janosz et al. (2006) have classified them into four distinct types: quiet, maladjusted, disengaged, and low-achiever.
Quiet – 40% of dropouts
- Tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods
- Like school
- Say they are engaged with their education
- Present no behavioural problems
- Grades are nevertheless low
Maladjusted – 40% of dropouts
- Present behavioural problems
- Also tend to fail at school
- Problems present in several areas of their lives (school, family, and social)
- Have troubled family environments
Disengaged – 10% of dropouts
- Say they are disengaged with school, school does not make sense to them
- Have some behavioural problems
- Have average grades
Low-achievers – 10% of dropouts
- Very poor grades; tend to fail or repeat grades
- This affects their motivation at school
- Present no or few behavioural problems
School perseverance at a glance
of Montreal students obtain a diploma.
A 12.1% improvement since 2009.
of Montreal youth drop out before graduating.
A 6.6% improvement since 2009.
of Québec dropouts are in Montreal.
This represents 2,080 Montreal youth who left school without graduating in 2015.
of Montreal kindergarten students are vulnerable in at least one developmental domain.
This is higher than the Québec average of 25.6%.
of Québec elementary students living in the most underprivileged conditions are in Montreal.
An average of 25,245 Montreal families with a child under the age of 18 live in a highly underprivileged area.
(Target for the Montreal region, students aged 20 and under)